Enzymes are important proteins in the human body. They aid in the acceleration of chemical reactions in the human body. They attach themselves to molecules and change them in precise ways. They are required for breathing, digestion, muscle and nerve function, and a variety of other functions. In this article, We are going to look deeper into 3 important enzymes , MPO, PTEN, and ADA.

3 Important human enzymes: MPO, PTEN and ADA
(Image Credits: Genome.gov)

What is Myeloperoxidase(MPO)? 

MPO (myeloperoxidase) is a peroxidase enzyme encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17 in humans. MPO is most abundantly expressed in neutrophil granulocytes (a subtype of white blood cells) and creates hypohalous acids, particularly hypochlorous acid (the sodium salt of which is the ingredient in bleach), to carry out their antibacterial action.

During the neutrophil’s respiratory burst, MPO, a member of the XPO subfamily of peroxidases, creates hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride anion (Cl) (or hypobromous acid if Br- is present). Heme is required as a cofactor. It also uses hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent to convert tyrosine to tyrosyl radical. Because hypochlorous acid and the tyrosyl radical are both cytotoxic, the neutrophil uses them to kill bacteria and other pathogens.

Clinical Significance of MPO antibody

MPO antibody, when used in tandem with other autoantibody tests, can be used to assess patients with immune-mediated vasculitis, particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Patients with MPA are more likely to have MPO ANCA, and azotemia related to glomerulonephritis is a possibility (pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis). MPO ANCA is present in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without lupus nephritis, Goodpasture syndrome, and Churg-Strauss syndrome, as well as people with MPA. In lupus nephritis, Goodpasture disease, and Wegener granulomatosis, azotemia with progressive renal failure can occur. Autoantibody testing may be helpful in distinguishing certain illnesses if clinical signs and symptoms are lacking.

How to make the best out of MPO antibody

Humans, mice, and rats are all reactive to MPO antibodies. The antibody has been tested in immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. 2g/ml for immunofluorescence, 0.5-1g/ml for paraffin-embedded immunohistochemistry, and 0.1-0.5g/ml for Western blotting are recommended test dilutions. When it comes to assay optimization, the guidelines above are an excellent place to start. Working concentration varies, and the user has the final say.

What is PTEN? 

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a phosphatase that the PTEN gene encodes in humans. Through the activity of its phosphatase protein product, PTEN operates as a tumor suppressor gene. This phosphatase plays a role in cell cycle regulation, stopping cells from expanding and dividing too quickly. Many anticancer medications target it. The PTEN enzyme binds to another PTEN enzyme (dimerizes) to function, then binds to the cell membrane. By eliminating phosphate groups, which are made up of a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms, the PTEN enzyme alters other proteins and fats (lipids). Phosphatases are enzymes that perform this function.

About PTEN antibody 

PTEN Antibody detects total PTEN protein in the body. The antibody has no cross-reactivity with proteins that are linked to it. PTEN Antibody is a high-quality monoclonal PTEN antibody (also known as phosphatase and tensin homolog antibody) that can be used to detect mouse, rat, and human PTEN proteins. PTEN Antibody is available as a non-conjugated anti-PTEN antibody as well as a variety of conjugated anti-PTEN antibody options.

What is ADA? 

The ADA gene gives instructions for making the adenosine deaminase enzyme. Adenosine deaminase is produced by all cells, although it is found in the highest concentrations in immune system cells termed lymphocytes, which grow in lymphoid organs. The thymus gland, which is positioned behind the breastbone, and lymph nodes, which are spread throughout the body, are examples of lymphoid tissues.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine metabolic enzyme that plays a key role in lymphoid cell growth and function. This enzyme belongs to the hydrolase family, which includes enzymes that operate on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, such as cyclic amidines. Adenine aminohydrolase is the scientific name for this enzyme class.

About  ADA antibody 

The ADA antibody detects total Adenosine Deaminase protein in the body. The recombinant fragment has a sequence that corresponds to a portion of Adenosine Deaminase between amino acids 119 and 363. Antigen-affinity chromatography is used to purify ADA antibodies.

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