Gemstones have been sought after and treasured throughout the history of humankind. They are found in ruins dating several thousand years. They are valued as gifts symbolizing love.

The first thing one needs to understand is that gemstones are graded by the rarity of their features. Even though the term quality is used, that does not mean that one gem is better than another. On the contrary, what is best for someone may not be the top or rarest grade of a gemstone. A 100-carat stone is far rarer than a one-carat stone, and that feature adds to its value. However, simply a larger size does not mean that it is better.

Gemstone Buying Guide

So, as you read the following descriptions be clear that the grades have to do with the rarity of the feature. They do not mean more durable, (with the single exception of diamonds) more beautiful, or better suited for you. When choosing a gem, look for the one that appeals most to you.

If you are one of those who are looking for a gemstone ring, look no further. offers a selection of high-quality and beautifully designed gemstone rings you can choose from.

Standard Industry Grading of Gemstones.

If you have studied the diamond buying guide, you would know of the four c’s. They apply to gemstones as well, in addition to a few other factors. The four c’s are considered first and other features in alignment with those. These c’s are: color, cut, clarity, and carat. A more recent inclusion is the fifth c of cost.


The international colored gems association breaks up the color component according to three factors:

  • Hue, (red, green, blue, etc.)
  • Saturation (strong or pastel, red or pink.)
  • Tone, (light to dark.)

Generally, highest values go to gems with pure hues and strong, rich colors. With prized gems, subtle variations make a significant difference in price. For example, a slightly greenish sapphire will not be worth nearly as much as one that is more towards blue or blue-purple. Most people cannot see this difference, but to the expert, it is significant. The color that is best for you is a personal matter. People with strong personalities prefer strong, bold colors; others prefer something softer and brighter. The color of your complexion and the color of the clothing also have a significant effect on your choice. As you look at gems, you will notice that only a few of them have the absolute deepest and richest coloring. However, the boldest colored stones are not the best match for every complexion or every personality.

In precise grading terms: clear, medium-tone, intense, and saturated primary colors are the most preferred. Pure red, not orangish-red. Pure blue, not greenish-blue. Muted colors and colors between hues, which you might find very attractive, are usually less expensive.


Clarity in gemstones is always an important consideration, next only to color in importance. Colored stones are rarely as clean as diamonds, and the same criteria should not judge them. The bottom line is there is no standardized grading system for clarity: it varies by gem type. With colored gemstones, if inclusion is not showing in the face-up position, it generally doesn’t matter at all. (unlike diamonds which are graded upside-down). Valuable stones like emeralds, rubies, and sapphires are rarely clean. Clarity and transparency are desirable, but the color is still of paramount importance. Gemstones are not the same- some are clean, and some are always included. Gemstones that are normally found to be clean include amethyst, aquamarine, blue topaz, citrine, kunzite, tanzanite, and yellow beryl. Gemstones that normally may have a few inclusions include iolite, peridot, ruby, sapphire, spinel, and tourmaline. Gemstones that normally are heavily included are emeralds and red beryl.

In some cases, it is the inclusions which enhance a stone’s value. The best star sapphires and star rubies are usually translucent, and it is the minute inclusions inside the stones that reflect the light and produce the star effects.

Grading of Gemstones


This is what gives a gemstone its beauty and brilliance. An ideal cut that reflects all the light in an even pattern without any darkness or windowing is considered the best. In gemstones, what produces the maximum brilliance is what is best.

An excellent cut is something that may not cost more but can add to or deter from beauty. Colored gemstones come in lots of different cut variations, far more than diamonds. There are no fixed rules about cutting and the ultimate value of a particular stone after faceting. A skilled cutter makes careful consideration of yield and proportion. Besides, the positioning of deep inclusions always produces the best result.

Remember, the intensity of the color is always an essential consideration for cutters. All gemstones become lighter as the size is reduced. The color of dark stones improves as their size is reduced while light stones become even lighter and lose some of their value as a result of cutting. Cutters frequently re-cut poorly faceted stones, using skill to select those with color and clarity and then drawing out their hidden potential, while still maximizing final weight and value.

Don’t let anyone confuse you that cut refers to the shape. Shape refers to the physical form or contour of the stone. And cut determines how well the shape is executed.


A carat is a metric unit of weight used in the gemstone industry to describe how much a gemstone weighs. A carat is equal to one-fifth of a gram, and there are five carats in one gram. Thus when referring to decimal fractions of a carat, a point is equal to .01 (1/100th) of a carat.

Larger stones are always rarer, and per-carat prices will usually be more than equivalent to similar stones in a smaller size. Relationships between per-carat prices and sizes vary with each specific gemstone group.

Carat weights do not determine size. The density of gems varies from very light stones like opal to especially heavy stones like zircon.


Like any other commodity, supply and demand determine the prices of gemstones. Fine gemstones are never available in quantity, and demand is always strong, with some gem dealers buying the best, the biggest, and the rarest stones whenever they can. Nava Gemstones offers the lowest prices online for comparable designer gemstone jewelry and fine diamond jewelry.

Deposits are quickly depleting, and mining sometimes stops or becomes too expensive when the gem deposits near the surface are exhausted. Deeper mining is more expensive; it requires more machinery, more fuel, and more time and effort to produce the stones. As the depth increases, the gems become more costly, and when the price of production exceeds the market price, the mining stops.

Supply may be unpredictable, but so too is demand, which can be promoted, or simply be the result of some unforeseen fashion trend due to the popularity of a certain color, or because of the association of a particular stone with some celebrity.

gemstone cut

Gemstone Treatments and Enhancements

It is a norm in the gemstone industry for gems to undergo treatment. Records as far back as 50 ad testify such processes. The most common is the heat treatment, which enhances the appearance of a gem. That is why they are also called enhancements. Treatments nowadays are permanent, and untreated gemstones are a parody of what we have come to know as gems.

Important to note is that treatment does not affect a gem’s value. Interestingly, in some precious and semi-precious colored gemstones, there is no variation between the value of treated and untreated material. Treating may even increase a gem’s value. However, high-quality unheated rubies and sapphires are rare and command a much higher market price. When purchasing high-quality rubies and sapphires, please be aware that unheated material is almost non-existent, making it exorbitantly priced. However, for most of us, treatments are a godsend, as they make gems more available.

Common Treatments

  • Emerald: usually oiled with colorless oil to improve appearance.
  • Ruby: usually heated to improve color and appearance.
  • Sapphire: usually heated to produce intensity or light color and/or improve color uniformity.
  • Tanzanite: usually heated to produce violet-blue color.
  • Aquamarine: usually heated to improve color.
  • Blue topaz: usually irradiated and heated to produce a blue color.
  • Tourmaline: commonly irradiated to intensify pink, red, and purple color.
  • Jade: commonly impregnated with colorless wax.
  • Lapis lazuli: commonly impregnated with colorless wax or oil.
  • Coral: commonly bleached.
  • Pearls: commonly bleached to improve color and appearance.
  • Black onyx: always dyed.

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